Friday, September 19, 2008

The Night of Qadr (The Night of Greatness)



蓋德樂夜
在古蘭經(Al-Quran)提到:
قال الله تعالى} : إنا أنزلناه في ليلة القدر وما أدراك ما ليلةُ القدر ليلة القدر خير من ألف شهر تَنَزَّلُ الملائكة والروحُ فيها بإذن ربهم من كل أمرٍ سلامٌ هي حتى مطلع الفجر{ سورةالقدر.

此章(第97章)說明蓋德樂夜是個很尊貴的夜,因為 真主命令哲伯利天使在這一夜將全部古蘭經從第七層天之上的「Al-Lawhil-Mahfuth」(前定板)處拿到第一層天一個叫「Baytul-Izzah」的地方。在一段聖訓中穆罕默德使者說::
عن النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم قال :" أُنزلت التوراة لستٍ مضين من رمضان وأُنزل الإنجيل لثلاث عشرة ليلة خلت من رمضان وأُنزل القرءآن لأربع وعشرين خلت من رمضان) " رواه الإمام أحمد والبيهقي

意思是:At-Tawrah(Musa使者帶來的經典):是在萊買丹(Ramadan)月的第六天之後被降下的,Al-Injil(耶穌使者的經典)是在萊買丹(Ramadan)月的第十三天之後被降下的,而Al-Quran(古蘭經)是在萊買丹(Ramadan)月的第二十四天被降下的。由以上這段聖訓我們可以知道Al-Quran (古蘭經)是萊買丹(Ramadan)月的第二十四天晚上被降下來的,因此蓋德樂夜不一定在萊買丹(Ramadan)月的第二十七夜或第二十九夜,而只是通常是在這兩個夜晚。另有一段聖訓說:

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم:" فالتمسوها في العشر الاواخر"

意思是:通常在萊買丹(Ramadan)月的下旬可遇到蓋德樂夜,所以你們在齋月的下旬來尋求蓋德樂夜。然而為什麼古蘭經(Al-Quran)或聖訓(Al-Hadith)中没有指明那一夜是蓋德樂夜呢?那是因為要讓眾穆民在齋月中確實實行善功(如禮拜、留在清真寺、唸古蘭經(Al-Quran)等)以求得能遇上在蓋德樂夜履行善功。
哲伯利(Jibril)天使將古蘭經(Al-Quran)按照各種原因及當時的情況分段降給穆罕默德(Muhammad)使者,因此古蘭經(Al-Quran)的頒降並不像現在我們所看的章節排列的順序一樣,等到大約經過23年左右古蘭經(Al-Quran)所有的章節都降給穆罕默德(Muhammad)使者之後,以 真主(Allah)的啟示,他(使者)才教他的追隨者按照現今的順序加以排列;這就是我們今天看到的古蘭經(Al-Quran),因此古蘭經(Al-Quran)的章節並非由穆罕默德使者或以後的學者自行排列的,而是 真主透過哲伯利(Jibril)天使啟示給穆罕默德使者而加以排列的。在古蘭經(Al-Quran)提到:} ليلة القدر خير من ألف شهر{意思是:在蓋德樂夜中做善功在 真主(Allah)來說比得上在平常日子的一千個月所做的善功。如何確定蓋德夜?蓋德夜有一些徵兆:如看到一種直接被真主造的光,這光不是太陽月亮或電所產生的光,或是看到樹木為真主而叩頭,或是聽到天使們的聲音,或會與天使握手,或是看到天使的原形(有兩對或兩對以上的翅膀),凡遇到以上某一徴兆的人他就算是遇到了蓋德樂夜了。這些徴兆也可能是夢到,而看到要比夢到更好。在蓋德夜中做(祈禱),真主會接受他的(祈禱)。另有一段聖訓提到:

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم:" من قام ليلة القدر إيماناً واحتساباً غُفِرَ له ما تقدم من ذنبه

它的大意是:在蓋德夜為 真主做禮拜(副功拜)真主會饒恕他的罪。不論他做了幾拜 真主都接受,但禮拜時唸的經文長而久的人比禮拜時只是叩頭次數多的人還要好。
在古蘭經(Al-Quran)提到:

}تَنَزَّلُ الملائكة والروحُ فيها بإذن ربهم من كل أمرٍ سلامٌ هي حتى مطلع الفجر

{大意是:在蓋德夜有許多天使會下來人間,他們在這一夜帶下來這一年當中 真主己經註定要發生的事(包括給人們的食物給養以及人的生死﹑病痛或財富等等。)並和他們道Salam。
有一段聖訓也提到:

يقول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: "إذا كانت ليلة القدر نزل جبريل في كبكبة من الملائكة يصلون ويسلمون على كل عبد قائم أو قاعد يذكر اللهَ عز وجل " (رواه السيوطي في الجامع الكبير)

它的大意是:在蓋德樂夜中哲伯利天使及(其它)很多天使都下來了(從太陽落下以後到晨禮時為止)為了求 真主饒恕那些做禮拜(不論站立或坐下)的穆斯林的罪並和他們道Salam。

English Translation ;

The scholars of Islam have four sayings as to why the Night of Qadr was named as such. The first is that Qadr means greatness. The second is that it is a night when the Earth is very crowded with angels who come down to Earth. The third is that it is a night in which a great Book (The Holy Qur'an) came down; in this particular night a great mercy and great angels come down. The fourth is that it is a night of great honour. We have not found a saying of a scholar that the Night of Qadr means the Night of Power, as claimed in many books.
Allah said in the Qur'an (al- Qadr, Verses 1-5):


إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ {1} وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ {2} لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ {3} تَنَزَّلُ الْمَلائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ فِيهَا بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِم مِّن كُلِّ أَمْرٍ {4} سَلامٌ هِيَ حَتَّى مَطْلَعِ الْفَجْرِ {5

The tafsir (meaning) of this honourable Surah is given below:


إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ}1}

It means: ‘’Allah brought the Qur'an down on the Night of Qadr.'' On that night, Allah ordered Angel Jibril to take the Qur'an from the Guarded Tablet (al-Lawh-ul-Mahfudh). Jibril took it in its totality down to a place in the lowest heaven called Bayt-ul-^Izzah. From Bayt-ul-^Izzah, Jibril came down with the Qur'an in parts upon the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلّم, in accordance with the events and reasons. This took place for twenty-three (23) years. On the day following that night, the first five verses from Surat -ul-^Alaq were revealed to the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam.


It is mentioned in a hadith narrated by Imam Ahmad and al-Bayhaqiyy that the Prophet sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam said what means:


"The Tawrah was brought down on the sixth night of Ramadan, Injil on the thirteen night of Ramadan, Zabur on the eighteenth night of Ramadan, and the Qur'an on the twenty-fourth night of Ramadan.'' This hadith informs us that the Qur'an was revealed on the twenty-fourth night of Ramadan. The Qur'an tells us it was the Night of Qadr. On that year, the twenty-fourth night of Ramadan was the Night of Qadr. It is not definite that the night of Qadr will occur on the 27th or the 29th night of Ramadan, although from other hadiths we know that this is most likely the case.The Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said:


"روى البخاريّ عنِ ابن عبَّاسٍ رضي الله عنه أنَّ رسولُ الله صلى الله عليه وسلَّم قال: التَمِسُوها في العشر الأواخِر من رمضانَ"

It means: ‘’Seek the night of Qadr during the last ten nights of Ramadan.'' This is because it is most likely to take place during the last ten nights. This does not exclude it being in other than those last ten nights. It might be on the first, second, or other nights. The wisdom of concealing it is that in order to obtain its promised reward, people need to be persistent in exerting a great amount of effort in doing acts of worship throughout all the nights of Ramadan. The Qur'an was not revealed according to the present order. After twenty-three years of Revelation, the Qur'an was revealed in total to the Prophet sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. He taught his Companions to recite it in the order which has been known to Muslims since the time of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. Reciting the parts of the Qur'an in this order was not an ijtihad from the Companions, but mere execution and following of the Prophet's orders.


وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ}2}

It means: ‘’[O Muhammad,] How would you know what the Night of Qadr is!'' It means that before Allah informed you, you did know what the merit of that night was. This verse truly is a question which emphasizes the high status of this night abd encourages the person to seek its goodness.


لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ}3}

This verse is the answer to the previous verse.It means: ‘’The reward one receives for doing acts of worship during this night is greater than the reward received for doing them in one thousand months (which do not have the night of Qadr in them)''. One thousand months is approximately 83 years.


The Night of Qadr has many signs. Among the signs that show a person has witnessed the night of Qadr are:


1. Seeing a bright and clear light that Allah creates, other than the light of the sun, the moon, and electricity.2. To see the trees making sujud (prostrating), or the sun rising in the morning with soft gentle light. 3. To see the angels in their original form with two, three, four or more wings, or to see them in the shape of a human being (i.e. the shape of a man without genitalia.) Note: Angels never appear in the shape of a female as explicitly stated in the Qur'an.


Seeing it in a dream indicates good things. However, it is not as precise and good as seeing it while awake. Whoever does not see it in the dream or while awake, but is diligent in praying and obedience on that night shall be granted, from its great blessing, the promised reward of worshipping Allah on that night. The Prophet peace be upon him said:


"مَنْ قامَ ليلةَ القَدْرِ إيمانًا وَاحْتِسابًا غُفِرَ له ما تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذنْبٍه."

It means: ‘’Whoever prays on the Night of Qadr with faith and seeking reward from Allah, then his past, small sins will be forgiven.'' To get this reward one prays, and the number of rak^ahs could be a few or many. It is better to recite for a long time while standing in Salah than to make long sujud with little reciting. Making du^a' at the moment of seeing the night of Qadr is an indication of the du^a' being fulfilled. Many Muslims have been blessed with obtaining what they asked on that night.


تَنَزَّلُ الْمَلائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ فِيهَا بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِم مِّن كُلِّ أَمْرٍ}4}

It means: ‘’On that night, Jibril and the angels come down with what Allah ordered and willed to happen for the next year, such as the sustenance (rizq) of the people and how long they will live, births, marriages, calamities, enjoyments and the like.'' A hadith is related about the Messenger of Allah saying what means:


‘’On the Night of Qadr, Jibril comes down with a group of angels. They make supplication for and say salam to every one who is standing in prayer or sitting mentioning Allah subhanahu wa-ta^ala. They keep on descending from sunset until dawn (Fajr) appears.


سَلامٌ هِيَ حَتَّى مَطْلَعِ الْفَجْرِ}5}

It means: ‘’This night is full of peace, goodness, and blessings upon the righteous and obedient Muslims until the appearance of dawn.'' Moreover, Satan cannot do any evil or harm during this night.Lady A'ishah asked the Prophet what du^a' (supplication) she should say if she knew it was the Night of Qadr. He told her to say:


"اللهمَّ إنَّكَ عَفُوٌّ تُحِبُّ العفْوَ فَاعْفُ عنِّي

[Allahumma innaka afuwwun tuhibbul-^afwa fa^fu ^annee.]It means: ‘’O Allah You are the One Who pardons a great amount and loves to pardon. I ask You to pardon me.'' (at-Tirmidhiyy). The Prophet's most frequent du^a' in Ramadan and other than Ramadan was:


"ربَّنا ءاتِنَا في الدُّنْيا حَسَنَةٌ وفي الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَة وقِنَا عذابَ النَّار."

It means: ‘’Our Lord, grant us good things in this world and good things in the Hereafter, and protect us from the torture of Hellfire.'' The good things in this life include good health and deeds, knowledge, and a righteous wife and children. The good things in the Hereafter include Paradise and being saved from the torture of the Day of Judgement.


And Allah knows best.

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